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Have you ever got furious because the toxins you have purchased online was actually an empty vial?

The explanation resides in the drying method used by the manufacture of each toxin brand!


What is drying method?

Drying method is simply a water removing method.
There are 2 types of drying methods:
1. Vacuum freeze-drying (based on water melting point)
2. Vacuum drying which (based on water boiling point)


Vacuum freeze-drying or lyophilization

Dehydration by freezing raw product and then moving to a drying chamber, reduce the chamber pressure, enable solid ice (inside the raw product), and sublimate to vapor (removed from raw product). Water removal is based on sublimation (Solid to Vapor).
Inside the freeze dryer, the product is frozen first. From there, the pressure reduces inside the dryer while heat is gently added. The heat allows for the frozen water in the source material to go from a solid to a gas without having become a liquid. This process is called sublimation. From there, it follows an additional drying.


Vacuum drying or dehydration (without freezing stage)

Reducing the environmental pressure enables the reduction of the water boiling point, when it reaches a certain range, the water starts boiling and goes out of raw product. So, vacuum drying water removes based on water boiling.

These steps allow for the material to dry at a much faster pace than a proper freeze-drying process typically takes. The process enables producers to speed up their production process while conserving energy.


The theoretical class has finished, Now let’s get technical :)

Differences between the results of Drying methods

1. APPEARANCE, (because it is not fun to find an “empty vial” when you receive your product)
Both freeze-dried and air-dried products serve the exact same purpose.
The sublimation process in freeze-drying keeps the cell structure intact more effectively than the air-drying process; while finished air-dried products tend to have more shriveled appearance.
Due to higher moisture content, however, an air-dried product can have a higher color saturation than its freeze-dried counterpart.
In the freeze-drying process, excipients (albumin and NaCl) included in the botulinum toxin products create a structure during the freezing process. When the frozen water sublimates, it creates holes in the structure, which increases the light scattering and makes it appear whiter. And because water sublimates while maintaining the structure, the volume doesn’t change, and this makes the drug (white cake) appear in a larger amount. On the other hand, in the vacuum-drying process, water sublimes without freezing, and the excipients do not create a structure. Therefore, the volume and the size of the drug (white cake) decrease during the water sublimation process, which reduces the light scattering phenomenon. So, the amount of vacuum-dried drugs appears less than freeze-dried products and less white.
Note that the toxin vial will appear to be empty before reconstitution because it contains a small amount of vacuum-dried toxin that looks like clear crystals. To determine whether you’re using toxin, look for a dried circling on the bottom.
Here is an illustrative example of the results of Vacuum drying and Vacuum freeze-drying


Both freeze-dried and air-dried products are made up of 100% of the original raw product. Nothing is added during the process itself, and only water is removed. After that initial process, some processors may choose to add a carrier for certain products to keep them free-flowing or to benefit the intended application.


Because cell structure remains intact throughout the freeze-drying process, those cells remain ready to take on water again. Freeze-dried products may rehydrate in a couple of minutes, whereas air-dried products may take closer to thirty minutes – once again depending on the specific product.


The shelf-life of any given product directly links to the moisture content of that product. Removing water eliminates the potential for bacterial growth. Since air-dried products contain more moisture, they have a shorter shelf life. The actual length of shelf life for any given freeze-dried or air-dried product depends on the packaging, storage temperature, and the product itself.
Therefore, if the toxin is prepared as a lyophilized protein, it will present in small quantities that look like white dust and you will barely see it, this represents 100U of the crystalline powder. It may be looks like almost nothing, but once that is reconstituted with saline it works for sure.


Freeze-drying or lyophilization


Vacuum drying (without freezing stage)


**This information does not apply to Innotox, a liquid


Differences Between Vacuum Drying and Lyophilization Freeze Drying

Comments (2)

  • ratings
    Mercedes Hart
    2022-06-20 21:56:47

    I am trying everything to login I’m to my account but no lucky so far, can you send me a link to access my account? Thank you. PS your credit card payment sistem does not work, can you send me an other form of payment? Thank you

  • ratings
    Adriana Mac-Arango
    2022-04-17 11:25:05

    All great information & really good to know

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